Would You Have Passed 8th Grade?

Congratulations to the Class of 2016!

Gillette High School Class of 1916 (Lucas Collection, P74-19/26)

Gillette High School Class of 1916
(Lucas Collection, P74-19/26)

Did you know that students have only been graduating from Wyoming high school since 1879? High school education was not common until the early 20th century. Cheyenne opened the first secondary school in the state in 1874, followed by Buffalo in 1881 and Newcastle 1889. This meant that either the family had to move to town or the child was sent to board with family and friends. It also meant that graduation from 8th grade was similar to graduating from high school today.

Wyoming’s state constitution did include a compulsory education requirement, but it only  that:

…the legislature shall require that every child of sufficient physical and mental ability shall attend a public school during the period between six and eighteen years for a time equivalent to three years, unless educated by other means. (Article VII, Section 9)

In 1907, the Legislature passed an act mandating compulsory education for all students between the ages of six and fourteen years of age equating to 6 months per school session (school year).

By 1916, the number of high schools around the state had grown to 25. Today, there are 141 high schools in Wyoming.

The cover of the Superintendent's record book shows Columbia, the feminine personification of the United States.  (WSA Crook County Superintendent of Schools  ledger)

The cover of the Superintendent’s record book shows Columbia, the feminine personification of the United States.
(WSA Crook County Superintendent of Schools ledger)

Buried in the Crook County Superintendent of Schools records are copies of questions from the 8th grade examinations given in 1913-1915. These questions give insight not only into the curriculum of the district, but also into the values of the local community, or at least the County Superintendent.

For the years 1912-1915, the superintendent included details about each of the tests include when and where they were given, who administered the test, and the questions included in the test. Unfortunately, no answers are given. The ledger also includes the names of the students and their test scores, though this information is restricted and cannot be released to researchers.  (WSA Crook County Superintendent of Schools ledger)

For the years 1912-1915, the superintendent included details about each of the tests include when and where they were given, who administered the test, and the questions included in the test. Unfortunately, no answers are given. The ledger also includes the names of the students and their test scores, though this information is restricted and cannot be released to researchers.
(WSA Crook County Superintendent of Schools ledger)

Would you have passed the test? Below are the questions from the test given at 10 schools in Crook County in November 1913.

Physiology and Hygiene

  1. Name the principal organs of digestion.
  2. Name the chief parts of the nervous system. State clearly their use in the system.
  3. Beginning with the right auricle, trace the course of the blood through the circulatory system.
  4. Discuss the importance of ventilation in the home and in the school.
  5. Give three uses of the bones. Name the bones of the hand and the arm.
  6. What are the organs of special sense? How may we increase their usefulness?
  7. What is hygiene? Give several important rules of hygiene.
  8. Why is the use of tobacco more harmful to a boy than to a man?
  9. Give the general effects of alcohol.
  10. Define the following: lymph, corpuscle, cardiac, vertebra, tendon

Agriculture

  1. Define agriculture.
  2. Define humus. Name several kinds of soil.
  3. What are some of the importaint elements that plants require from the soil? What is meant by the term “texture of the soil”?
  4. What is irrigation? What do you understand by the term “dry farming”?
  5. What is soil mulch? How is it obtained?
  6. What plants are called root crops? Name some plants having tap roots.
  7. What three conditions are necessary for germination? How should a seed bed for wheat by prepared?
  8. What is a cutting? What plants are propagated by cuttings?
  9. What are fiber crops? Cereal crops? Name the most important ones of United States?
  10. Name the different classes of insect pests.

Wyoming Civics

  1. Name the three departments of the state. Of what does each consist?
  2. Who is our governor? Give the length of term, salary and duties.
  3. Who represents our district in the state legislature? Give the length of the term of office.
  4. How often does the legislature meet? Give three of its powers.
  5. When was Wyoming admitted as a state?
  6. How are the public schools supported? What subjects does the school law require taught in our public schools?
  7. Name and locate the state buildings.
  8. Define treason; bribery; alien; citizen; jury
  9. What is meant by equal suffrage?
  10. Who is the judge of our district? What are his duties?
List of questions given (WSA Crook County Superintendent of Schools ledger)

This set of questions was used at 10 schools in the county in November 1913, including Sundance, Hulett, Alva and Rifle Pit Schools. 
(WSA Crook County Superintendent of Schools ledger)

Geography

  1. What is geography?
  2. Describe the motions of the earth.
  3. Explain the cause of seasons.
  4. Name the grand divisions in order of their size.
  5. Compare North America and South America in reference to position; drainage; climate; people.
  6. What is the leading production of [the] United States? Brazil? Germany? Cape Colony? Australia?
  7. Where and what are the following: Gibralter? [sic] Popocatapetl? Bombay? Shasta? Afghanistan?
  8. Bound the United States. Name and locate five of its leading cities.
  9. Name the states of the United States bordering on the Gulf of Mexico and give their capitals.
  10. Sketch a map of Wyoming and show the Principal mountains and rivers; a place noted for scenic beauty; locate the capital and two largest cities.

Orthography

  1. Give two rules for spelling.
  2. Define prefix; suffix; affix; antonym; homophone
  3. Give the use of the hyphen

Detach these and pronounce:

courage
grammar
judgement
bureau
magazine
separate
peculiar
prairie
patient
certificate
latitude
eclipse
siege
bouquet
condemn
ridiculous
paralysis
arduous
villain
victuals
telephone
resign
agriculture
control
kerosene
alcohol
permitted
police
examine
palatable

Arithmatic

  1. Reduce to decimal fractions: ½, 1/5, ¼, 7/8, 2/3, 2/5. Find the least common multiple of 3, 5, 8, 15, 24
  2. Find the sum of 2/3, 2/5, 7/8, 13/15, 5/24. How many feet in a mile?
  3. A man bought a hat for $3 and sold it for $4. What was his gain in per cent? One of these hats was damages and he sold it for $1.50. What was his loss per cent?
  4. What do you mean by saying that a fraction in an indicated quotient? Multiply 25 ¾ by 45 2/3
  5. Write a negotiable promissory note. How many parties to a note? What is each called?
  6. What sum put at interest January 1, 1909, will amount to $343.75 February 1, 1911, interest at 7%?
  7. A square field contains 622521 sq. rods. Find the distance around it.
  8. Find the cost of flooring a bridge 60 feet long and 12 feet wide with boards 2 inches thick, costing $40 per M.?
  9. Define mixed number, fraction, percentage, insurance, commission.
  10. Find the interest on $144 from August 1 to December 1. Find the interest on $8100 for 179 das. At 4 ½% interest.

Grammar

  1. Name and define the parts of speech.
  2. What is a sentence? Classify sentences according to use; form.
  3. Parse the underlined words:The spider’s web is a wonderfulpiece of work.
  4. Write a sentence using a personal pronoun, second, singular, as an attribute complement.
  5. Distinguish between regular and irregular verbs and illustrate.
  6. Give the principal parts of the verbs: see, sit, lay, lie (to recline)
  7. Write a sentence using “they” as the subject, object, attribute.
  8. Write the possessive plural of these words: wolf, donkey, sheep, man, I
  9. Give three uses of a noun in the nominative case and illustrate.
  10.  Analyze or diagram: As we traveled onward many important places were pointed out to us.

History

  1. Describe briefly the life, manners and customs of the inhabitants of North America at the time of discovery.
  2. Name four explorers of different nationalities; and tell what each of them did.
  3. Name the thirteen original colonies and tell about the settlement of one.
  4. Give the direct cause of the Revolution. Name three generals on the American side and give an event in which each was an important actor.
  5. What was the Constitutional Convention?
  6. How was slavery introduced into United States and how was it abolished?
  7. Name four territorial acquisitions of the United States of which Wyoming was a part.
  8. Name four inventions of the nineteenth century. Which do you think was the most important and why?
  9. Who were the Hugonots? [sic] Pilgrims? Quakers?
  10. Name the cabinet offices.

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Starting a New Chapter: Curtis Greubel to Retire After 29 Years

On June 1st, we will be saying good-bye to one of our long-time supervisors and archivists, Curtis Greubel. He will retire after 29 years here at the Wyoming State Archives. Before he turns his computer off and reshelves his last box, we asked him to share some memories:

How did you become associated with the Wyoming State Archives?

I received an MA in History from Colorado State University, with an emphasis in archival management, in 1985, about the time job opportunities for prospective archivists became scarce (after a hiring boom).  I kept busy with volunteering and part-time jobs at CSU, the Fort Collins Museum, and with a microfilm / records storage business.  In 1987 I found out that the Wyoming State Archives was seeking an archivist for a grant funded position.  I applied for the job, which involved the arrangement and description of records from the State Engineers’s Office and records of Wyoming’s governors.  I was hired and worked on two grant-funded projects before I was selected to fill a vacant permanent position.

Carl Hallberg and Curtis Greubel processing records and updating FAs at AS, 1990s

Curtis (right) and Carl Hallberg updating finding aid binders and processing collections in the mid-1990s.

How has the WSA changed over the years? How did your duties change?

Of course the amount of material managed and stored has grown many times the amount the Archives had when I started.  The use and management of technology has been a major change.  When I started we typed letters and finding aids on typewriters.  Staff had to share our first computer.  Now most information is created digitally.  Managing, preserving, and providing access to digital records has been a big challenge for archivists.  My duties initially focused on arranging and describing collections, as well as assisting the public with access to information.  Early in my career I was also being steered toward a focus on electronic records, but these efforts were stymied by lack of funds for equipment and training.  When I became a supervisor my duties broadened to overall collection management issues, developing procedures and planning, and personnel matters.  I continued to assist with processing new collections, which I enjoyed doing.  Later on, the supervision of microfilming and scanning operations was assigned to me.  Managing the increasing volume of information in all formats has been a constant challenge.

What do you see as your legacy/greatest achievement of your career at the WSA?

I don’t know about a legacy.  I’ve been involved in the continued effort to improve how we manage and provide access to information, and how we meet the needs of our constituents.  The records at the Wyoming State Archives help document who we are and where we’ve come from.  I think that knowledge is very important, and therefore the preservation of the historical record is very important, as is maintaining personal information needed by Wyoming’s citizens. Being involved in that effort has been rewarding. 

crop, Records Management Day event, 4-5-1995, Curtis Greubel answering phone

Curtis pauses during a reception in the Reading Room to answer a call from a researcher.

Do you have a favorite collection? Project?

A favorite collection is tough. There are so many interesting ones. What comes to mind at this time is the Campbell Collection, records relating to the lives of Wyoming’s first governor, John Campbell, and his wife, Isabella.  The collection includes their diaries.   Isabella Campbell’s diaries contain entries recorded when she resided in Philadelphia and Washington D.C. during the years 1864-1866.  Though most of the entries deal with personal and family matters, the diaries also reveal something of what life was like in mid-19th century America, and provide a few glimpses of civilian reactions to Civil War events and the assassination of President LincolnGovernor Campbell’s diaries, 1869-1876, cover his years in Wyoming Territory, and almost two years after he left the Governor’s Office.  The collection also includes letters to Governor Campbell from family, friends, favor seekers, and business and political acquaintances.   There are references to and correspondence with Wyoming’s political leaders and United States government and military leaders.

Favorite projects include writing administrative histories for state agencies for a Guide to the Archives of Wyoming, planning and organizing events for the grand re-opening of the Barrett Building, where the Archives is housed, after it was renovated, planning for various Archives Month activities, and being involved with strategic planning for the agency, to name a few.

What is your favorite memory/story?

 A humorous story involves co-worker Carl Hallberg.  In the mid-90s Carl and I were in Rawlins at the State Penitentiary, reviewing and boxing records for transporting to the State Archives.  It was a long process and we were there during the lunch hour.  A Penitentiary staff member suggested we have lunch in the cafeteria, which also served less risky inmates.  The food was free and we didn’t have to leave the site so we agreed.  We arrived in the cafeteria toward the end of when lunch was served.  When the last inmate left, the guard, apparently not noticing us in our corner, locked up the facility.  When we finished our lunch, Carl and I discovered we had become inmates.  Fortunately, a trustee who worked in the kitchen was still on duty and eventually discovered our plight.  He led us through the kitchen to an exit door.

Wyoming State Penitentiary Administration Building, 1980s (WSA P2012-6/4)

Wyoming State Penitentiary Administration Building, Rawlins.
(WSA P2012-6/4)

Overall, visiting many of the state’s historic sites, museums, and historical records repositories as part of the job has been enjoyable.

You have written many posts for our blog over the years, do you have a favorite? Were there other topics you would have liked to explore? Did/do you enjoy writing?

My favorite was probably the one about Tim McCoy.  His story is quite remarkable.  I also enjoyed the governors’ birthday series.  Like McCoy, many of these men started life in very humble situations, but they took advantage of opportunities available in Wyoming, worked hard, and occasionally benefited from fortunate circumstances.  The last couple of posts I wrote dealt with lesser known collections.  I probably would have continued to write about those.

What was your least favorite task/project?

As I mentioned, the first project I worked on was the organization of State Engineer records.  This included a very large amount of general correspondence that needed to be put in alphabetical or chronological order.  This tedious task took many months to finish.  I was glad to move on to something else.

Do you have plans for your retirement?

I’ll be assisting my wife with her business, working on honey do’s, and maybe doing some writing. 

 

Thank you for the memories, Curtis. We’ll miss you but hope you enjoy a long and well-earned retirement!

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LibGuides Are Here!

Researching in an archive can be daunting. So can tracking down primary sources on a topic. Sometimes you just have questions about where to go for more information or how exactly to request information. Thankfully, help has arrived!

The Wyoming State Archives is rolling out a new resource for how-to and bibliographic information called LibGuides. These guides are a part of the Wyoming State Library‘s growing collection of guides on a variety of topics.

This month, our first four guides are now available:

  • Wyoming Vital Records – Need a Wyoming birth or death certificate? Perhaps a marriage or divorce record? Wondering what to expect in it? Find out here.
  • Women’s Suffrage in Wyoming – Since 1869, Wyoming’s women have been guaranteed suffrage: the right to vote in elections and hold public office. They were the first in the nation to be granted this right. Learn more in this guide about women’s suffrage in the state.
  • World War One and Wyoming – Learn about Wyomingites who fought “over there” and those who stayed on the homefront during the Great War. This guide also includes a bibliography and where to find additional information on Wyoming and World War One.
  • Tom Horn – Learn more about the infamous Tom Horn, his trial and execution in 1903. This guide also include a bibliography and where to find additional information.

Each guide is tailored to the topic it covers and answers questions like: Where do I find ___? Is it a primary/secondary source? How can I request a copy? Where can I find more information?

Information about births from the Vital Records guide.

Information about births from the Wyoming Vital Records guide.

Several of our new LibGuides also contain bibliographies. These are lists of archival collections, manuscripts, photograph collections, maps, books, articles, etc. on the topic of interest. Links are provided where the resources are available online.

Bibliography section of the new World War One and Wyoming LibGuide

Bibliography section of the new World War One and Wyoming LibGuide

Check out the guides and let us know what you think of them! Have a suggestion for a guide? Tell us what you’d like to see in the comments below.

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An Overview of the Poll Tax in Wyoming

The poll tax was an integral part of Wyoming since the territory’s inception.  The Territorial Legislature required counties to impose a poll tax of two dollars ($25.94 in 2015) for each adult.  Initially, it applied only to individuals over the age 21.  In 1873, the territorial legislature limited it to individuals between the ages of 21 and 50.   Later, firemen and their wives and veterans were exempted from the poll tax.

Money raised from this tax was delegated to funding schools.  This provision would be incorporated into the state constitution.  In 1909, a new statute allowed county commissioners’ could institute a special poll tax to pay for roads.

The (WSA Session Laws of Wyoming, 1873)

The statute passed by the 1873 State Legislature limited those responsible for the poll tax to citizens over the age of 21. It did not specify what the money raised would be used. The only penalty for non-payment was a seizure and sale of property to pay the tax by the sheriff or collection agent. It does not appear that non-payment threatened the individual’s access to the polls on voting day.
(WSA Session Laws of Wyoming, 1873)

The poll tax seems to have elicited little discussion in Wyoming circles. Elsewhere, it was a serious matter.   In many states, particularly in the South, failure to pay one’s poll tax resulted in the loss of voting rights.  In Wyoming, failure to pay a poll tax put an individual on a delinquent list.  If still unpaid after a period of time, a person’s property could be seized and sold or wages garnished.

Legislation already defined in broad terms, who could and who could not vote.  Moreover, there is no connection between paying a poll tax and the right to vote.  It seems that the only connection between poll taxes and voting was that poll tax records were used to compile a list of qualified voters.  

In 1890, the state legislature passed legislation that made it unnecessary for individuals to pay their poll tax in order to vote.  One can only guess at the legislature’s generosity.  Maybe they saw this as a way to push the process of statehood forward.  We may never know the true reason.

Telegraph from ___ to Governor Hansen  (WSA RG0001.36, Hansen gubernatorial records)

Telegraph from US Senate leadership to Governor Hansen urging him to ask the State Legislature to discuss ratification.
(WSA RG0001.36, Hansen gubernatorial records)

In 1962, Congress passed a resolution to amend the US Constitution by barring the poll tax as a requirement for voting in federal elections.  In January 1963 Sen. Gale McGee fervently encouraged Governor Clifford Hansen to get Wyoming to support the amendment.  McGee believed that “it would be in the interest of our State to have the legislature consider the proposal during its present session . . .”   Two months later, US Senators Mike Mansfield and Everett Dirksen also strongly urged Governor Hansen to should push the Wyoming legislature to support the amendment.  In their cable they stated that  “The strength and vitality of our democratic processes rests upon every qualified citizen expressing his views through the ballot – surely in this day, those otherwise qualified to vote should not be prevented from doing so by the anachronistic device of a poll tax.”    

Letter from Sen. McGee to Governor Hansen. (WSA RG0001.36, Hansen gubernatorial records)

Letter from Sen. McGee to Governor Hansen personally urging consideration of the amendment in the State Legislature.
(WSA RG0001.36, Hansen gubernatorial records)

Governor Hansen did not share any of the senators’ enthusiasm.  Moreover, even if the political logic seemed to have little effect on him, the matter was poorly timed.  At the time of McGee’s letter, the legislature was already in mid-session.   Hansen acknowledged Magee’s letter and in a dry, dispassionate terms that he had sent a memorandum to the speaker of the House and the President of the Senate to “take whatever action they deem advisable.”  After the legislative session had concluded, he stonily reported that no action had been taken by either chamber.  

Letter from Governor Hansen. (WSA RG0001.36, Hansen gubernatorial records)

Response from Governor Hansen to Senator Gale McGee.
(WSA RG0001.36, Hansen gubernatorial records)

With the legislative session concluded, the only possibility was a special session, but it did not seem practical to do so.  Unlike his Washington colleagues, Hansen was not inspired by the amendment to take any further action.  

In the meantime, between January and March 1963, 29 states ratified the amendment.  Between March 1963 and January 1964, 9 additional states ratified the measure and it became officially adopted into the US Constitution.  Wyoming is one of 8 states, most in the South, that did not ratify the 24th amendment.  

Wyoming is one of only a handfull of states that did not ratify the 24th Amendment. (map from Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:24th_amendment_ratification.svg)

Wyoming is one of only eight states that have never ratified the 24th Amendment.
(map from Wikimedia Commons)

To its credit, the Wyoming legislature was not totally oblivious.  From 1957 to 1963, several house members called for repealing the poll tax provision from the state constitution but the issue failed to get the support of the majority of the house members.  

Finally in 1967, both chambers agreed to endorse the idea, and the proposed constitutional change was strongly approved at the general election in November 1968.  The following year, the legislature repealed the poll tax statutes.

— Carl Hallberg, Reference Archivist

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Happy Arbor Day Wyoming! April 28th

First celebrated in 1872 in Nebraska, Arbor Day is an annual event that encourages the planting of trees all over the country. Wyoming has celebrated the event for 127 years, since the 1888 Territorial Legislature passed the law proclaiming that Arbor Day be observed by schools on the last Friday in April . Even before its official start, many citizens of Wyoming were interested in and encouraged the planting of trees on the treeless plains to beautify, block wind and encourage the productivity of the native soil. Read more about the early efforts in the Wyoming Newspaper Project.

In 1947, the State Legislature designated the Cottonwood as Wyoming’s official state tree. The specimen tree, thought to be the largest cottonwood in the world at the time, was located on the Clyde Cover ranch near Thermopolis. In 1941, the diameter of the tree’s truck measured 29 feet around at a point 4 ½ feet off the ground and was estimated to be about 60 feet tall. Unfortunately, this exceptional tree was lost to fire in 1955.

In 1961, it was discovered that the incorrect scientific name for the state tree was used in the 1947 bill, so the legislature amended the statute to read Populous saragentii rather than Populous balsamifera.

A new specimen tree was chosen in 1990, just in time for the state’s centennial. The new official tree was found through a contest sponsored by the Wyoming Chapter of the Society of American Foresters. The winner and largest tree nominated measured 31 feet in circumference, 64 feet tall and the average crown spread (how far the branches stick out) was just over 100 feet. The tree is located on the Flying X Ranch in Eastern Albany County. According to the story told in 1990 by Owen McGill, who had owned the ranch for many years, the tree had been planted around 1890 by Arthur Dover of England who had homesteaded at that spot in 1885. Dover had carefully tended the tree for many years and took great pride in his sapling, as did the McGills, who purchased the ranch in 1908.

Other historical trees of note in Wyoming:

– The “Wedding Tree”—This tree stood at the crossroads between Glendo and Esterbrook and was a convenient place to perform ceremonies, being halfway between these communities in Northern Albany and Southern Converse counties and Douglas, the closest courthouse.

– The Indian Sign Tree—This tree was found on the A.B. Fowler Ranch near Sunrise, Wyoming. In 1922, it was estimated to be about 400 years old and showed carvings of Indian signs, canoes, river boats and the dates 1854 and 1856. This tree was cut down in 1922 in order to preserve the carvings as the tree’s location was drowned by the reservoir. According to contemporary newspapers, the portion of the tree with the carvings was brought to the Platte County Library.

– The “Mystery Tree”—This Crook County tree, near the site of Welcome, Wyoming, was a giant pine tree that served as a marker for a group of hidden cabins purportedly used either by either the Hat Creek bandits or miners hiding from soldiers during the Black Hills Gold Rush. A scaffold had been built up the side of the tree and the tree was felled at this point, leaving a very tall stump some 3 feet in diameter.

– The Tree-in-the-Rock—Still one of the most memorable sites on I-80 between Cheyenne and Laramie, the pine tree grows out of a crack in a large granite boulder. Originally on the Union Pacific Railroad line, legend has it that the tree was watered and kept alive by train crews who watered the tree when they passed it going up the summit. The tree was a major landmark on the Lincoln Highway, the first transcontinental highway, when it took the place of the tracks when they were moved farther south. Lincoln Highway became I-80.

– The National Capitol Christmas Tree—Found off of Pacific Creek in Bridger-Teton National Forest, the 65 foot tall conifer was selected and transported to Washington D.C. to serve as the official U.S. Capitol Christmas Tree in 2010. This was the first tree of this distinction to come from Wyoming.

Gov. Mike Sullivan helping a student plant a tree on the front lawn of the Capitol Building while other students watch (Wyoming State Archives)

Gov. Mike Sullivan helping a student plant a tree on the front lawn of the Capitol Building while other students watch (Wyoming State Archives)

Tree-in-the-Rock on the Lincoln Highway between Cheyenne and Laramie, 1920s(Harrington Neg 128, Wyoming State Archives)

Tree-in-the-Rock on the Lincoln Highway between Cheyenne and Laramie, 1920s(Harrington Neg 128, Wyoming State Archives)

The CCC was a government run program designed to employ young men who were unable to find jobs during the Great Depression. The CCC planted millions of trees, built roads, trails and buildings in state and national parks. The Museum at Guernsey State Park is a wonderful example of CCC architecture. Two members of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) preparing to plant a pine tree, 1930s (Sub Neg 514, Wyoming State Archives)

The CCC was a government run program designed to employ young men who were unable to find jobs during the Great Depression. The CCC planted millions of trees, built roads, trails and buildings in state and national parks. The Museum at Guernsey State Park is a wonderful example of CCC architecture. Two members of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) preparing to plant a pine tree, 1930s (Sub Neg 514, Wyoming State Archives)

The grounds of the Wyoming State Capitol Building is home to many specimen trees. The Wyoming State Forestry Division produces a brochure on the trees, most of which are native to the state. Wyoming State Capitol Building in Spring, photo by Richard Collier, ca 1981 (P88-63/10, Wyoming State Archives)

The grounds of the Wyoming State Capitol Building is home to many specimen trees. The Wyoming State Forestry Division produces a brochure on the trees, most of which are native to the state. Wyoming State Capitol Building in Spring, photo by Richard Collier, ca 1981 (P88-63/10, Wyoming State Archives)

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Friday Foodie: Crumbs in the Cream

Homespun Ice Cream
Mrs. Twidale, Lost Cabin

Dry whole wheat muffins or bread and put through fine food chopper. To one cup of the crumbs, add one cup of brown sugar, one quart of thin cream, two teaspoons vanilla, few grains salt and a quarter cup of coconut or nuts ground with the crumbs. Freeze.

As odd as this recipe sounds to modern American palates, it dates back to Victorian England and has a strong following in modern Ireland where it is best known as brown bread ice cream. The question is, how did it come to Fremont County in 1929?

Twidale 2

Ethel’s recipe for ice cream appears on the very bottom of the front page of this Fremont County Extension newsletter as a part of their suggested Thanksgiving Menu. (WSA Fremont County Clerk, Home Demonstration Agent Annual Report, 1929)

Mrs. Ethel Cleworth Twidale was born in England in 1880. She married Joseph W. Twidale on March 12, 1910 in Manchester, England. Their honeymoon must have been their voyage to the US, because they arrived New York City in April and were in West Casper, Natrona County, Wyoming, just in time to be enumerated in the Federal census on May 12-14.

Twidale NY Passenger List from Ancestry copy

Joseph and Ethel arrived in New York on April 2, 1910 on the ship Campania. They gave their destination as Casper, Wyoming. (New York passenger List, Ancestry.com)

Born in 1877, Joseph was the 2nd son of a farmer with 8 other children. Ethel interesting is listed as a “spinster” on her marriage record. She was 30 years old at the time. The couple followed Joseph’s younger brothers Samuel and Frank who came to America in 1905 and settled in Natrona County. In 1915, the couple became US citizens and in 1916, they proved up on their homestead just across the Fremont-Natrona County line from Lysite.

Twidale

County and State Extension Agents often asked for volunteers to allow them to demonstrate new techniques, methods or skills to the local community. The Twidale’s home was used to model landscaping and home beautification by planting native trees and shrubs. The county agent’s 1929 report included the site plan and a photo of the property before work began. (WSA Fremont County Clerk, Home Demonstration Agent Annual Report, 1929)

The family agreed to allow the State Forestry Extension Agent to use their newly built log home to demonstrate ranch beautification. A plan for the planting of trees, bushes, flowers and a clover lawn were included in the Fremont County Extension Agent’s 1929 annual report.

Later in life, the couple moved to Billing and lived on Wyoming Avenue. Joseph died in early 1954 and Ethel in 1959. Both are buried in Billings.

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Tim McCoy: Wyoming Cowboy, Military Officer, Politician and Movie Star

On this day in 1928, the movie “Wyoming” starring Tim McCoy was release. The movie was filmed outside of Lander, Wyoming.

(WSA P2001-11/36)

(WSA P2001-11/36)

Tim McCoy was born in Saginaw, Michigan in 1891, the youngest of seven children.  Both his parents were Irish immigrants.  At age 16 his father enlisted in the Union Army during the Civil War but did not participate in the conflict.  He served as chief of police in Saginaw, Michigan during Tim’s youth.  Tim was exposed to the romance of the West in 1898 when Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show came to Saginaw.  Thanks to his father’s position, Tim was able to meet Cody, who left a strong impression on the boy.  A more readily accessible venue also influenced McCoy’s future career.  A local agent imported wild horses to Saginaw where they were broken and sold.  Young McCoy spent time at the corral observing the cowboys at their work.  In 1908, Tim was sent to St. Ignatius, a Chicago Jesuit school, to learn Latin.  That year a wild west show performed in the Windy City.  McCoy attended the performances regularly.  The following spring found McCoy heading west with a handful of belongings and the goal of becoming a cowboy.

Tim McCoy during his days as a cowboy, 1912. (WSA P2001-11/2)

Tim McCoy during his days as a cowboy, 1912.
(WSA P2001-11/2)

En route by train to Omaha, McCoy met a horse dealer from Lander who suggested he seek employment in Wyoming.  His first job was with the Double Diamond Ranch on the Wind River, where he worked in the hay fields.  Passing this initiation, he was included in the fall roundup, achieving his dream of becoming a cowboy.  After several years as a cowboy employed by other people, McCoy took steps toward owning his own ranch.   In 1915, he filed for a 640 acre homestead on Owl Creek, west of Thermopolis.  The ranch, called Eagle’s Nest, would eventually encompass 5,000 acres.  

McCoy's Eagle's Nest Ranch on Owl Creek, west of Thermopolis, Wyoming.  (WSA P2001-11/46)

McCoy’s Eagle’s Nest Ranch on Owl Creek, west of Thermopolis, Wyoming.
(WSA P2001-11/46)

Early in 1917, with Europe embroiled in its third year of war, McCoy read a newspaper article about former president Teddy Roosevelt’s recommendation that a division of soldiers be recruited and sent overseas to assist the English and French.  Roosevelt also recommended a cavalry force be sent. Inspired, McCoy wrote a letter to Roosevelt offering to recruit 400 cavalrymen from Wyoming and Montana.  Roosevelt told him to proceed via telegram.  McCoy had the promised number of commitments within two months.  However, Roosevelt was unable to sell the plan to the Wilson administration.  

The United States entered World War I on April 2, 1917.   The expansion of the army required qualified officers to lead, so the War Department opened a number of officer training schools.   This option was more attractive to McCoy than getting drafted so he traveled to Cheyenne with the hope of finding out how he could apply for training.  He arrived early in the day and was able to visit with Governor Frank Houx, whose secretary, Charlie Thompson, said he read that exams were being given at Fort Logan, near Denver.  Armed with a letter of recommendation from Houx, as well as his Roosevelt telegrams, McCoy headed to Denver.  Although the deadline for applications had passed, he was able to wrangle an order to proceed to the officers’ training camp at Fort Snelling in Minnesota.  With a performance that foreshadowed his acting career he bullied his way through the initial application process and joined the U.S. Army.  

McCoy often drew inspiration for his acting from his experiences as a cowboy in Wyoming. This scene may have been on a movie set, but McCoy had undoubtedly lived the scene in real life. (WSA P2001-11/35)

McCoy often drew inspiration for his acting from his experiences as a cowboy in Wyoming. This scene may have been on a movie set, but McCoy had undoubtedly lived the scene in real life.
(WSA P2001-11/35)

McCoy was commissioned as a captain of cavalry, quite an achievement for a young inexperienced soldier.  He was eventually assigned to Fort Riley in Kansas to help train a regiment of recruits.  However, the fading usefulness of cavalry in mechanized warfare was finally recognized and a large number of cavalry regiments were converted to artillery regiments.  Therefore, McCoy was sent to Artillery Officers’ School at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.  He was at Fort Sill when the war ended.  McCoy had attained the rank of lieutenant colonel by that time.

McCoy's first wife Agnes and their children Gerald, Margaret and John at the ranch on Owl Creek, 1925. (WSA P2001-11/6)

McCoy’s first wife, Agnes Miller, and their children Gerald, Margaret and John at the ranch on Owl Creek, 1925.
(WSA P2001-11/6)

While at Fort Snelling, McCoy married Agnes Miller, whom he had met at a dude ranch near Jackson Hole.  Agnes was the daughter of a stage actor and actress.  Agnes and Tim would have three children.  After the war, the McCoys settled in at Tim’s ranch on Owl Creek while he pondered whether or not to remain in the Army.  The decision was settled shortly after his return when Governor Robert Carey offered McCoy the position of Adjutant General of Wyoming.  He promptly accepted.  

Tim McCoy and the group of Arapahoes he recruited for Hollywood on the steps of the Wyoming State Capitol Building in 1922. McCoy and Gov. W.B. Ross are standing in the center of the group. (WSA  P2001-11/5)

Tim McCoy and the group of Arapahoes he recruited for Hollywood on the steps of the Wyoming State Capitol Building in 1922. McCoy and Gov. W.B. Ross are standing in the center of the group.
(WSA P2001-11/5)

In 1922, an agent for Famous Players – Lasky, a motion picture corporation that would eventually become Paramount Pictures Corporation, visited McCoy in his Capitol Building office to solicit his assistance.  McCoy was recruited to hire 500 Native Americans for the film The Covered Wagon and bring them to Hollywood.  After ensuring the recruits would be well paid and well treated, McCoy agreed to the arrangement and resigned from his position as Adjutant General.  He was also asked to serve as technical advisor for the film.  During the initial showings at Grauman’s Egyptian Theatre in Hollywood, McCoy conducted a “prologue” during which he spoke to audiences about the movie and introduced some of the Native Americans.  He also served as technical adviser for The Thundering Herd, and presented a prologue for The Iron Horse.

Tim McCoy on the set of End of the Trail (1932), with Wade Butler, Luana Walters and Chief White Eagle. The movie was filed outside of Lander, Wyoming.  (WSA P2001-11/12)

Tim McCoy on the set of End of the Trail (1932), with Wade Butler, Luana Walters and Chief White Eagle. The movie was filed outside of Lander, Wyoming.
(WSA P2001-11/12)

1926 found McCoy back at his ranch at Owl Creek and settled back in his role as a cattleman.  However, early in the year he received a telegram from a representative of Famous Players – Lasky who asked McCoy to return to Hollywood for a screen test, with the guarantee that he would appear in at least one motion picture. Thus began an entertainment career which would include over 90 movies.  McCoy starred in the first “all talking” movie serial, The Indians are Coming, in 1930.  His entertainment career would also include a couple of television series, Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus performances, and Tim McCoy’s Wild West and Rough Riders of the World.  The Wild West venture was launched during the Great Depression and closed after only three weeks of performances.  

McCoy with the cast and crew of Tim McCoy's Real Wild West Show, 1938. (WSA P2001-1/22)

McCoy with the cast and crew of Tim McCoy’s Real Wild West Show, 1938.
(WSA P2001-1/22)

McCoy ran an unsuccessful campaign for a U.S. Senate seat from Wyoming in 1942.  After losing in the primary election, he volunteered for the U.S. Army.  McCoy performed liaison work in Europe during World War II.  Except for a few cameo appearances in later years, McCoy made no more motion pictures after the war.  He returned to Wyoming long enough to sell his ranch, then purchased an estate in Pennsylvania called Dolington Manor.

Tim and Agnes McCoy had divorced in 1931.   Tim met Inga Arvad, a Danish beauty pageant winner and journalist, at a dinner party in Hollywood in 1946.  Arvad drew attention in the mid-1930s when she interviewed Adolf Hitler.  She came to America in 1940 and continued to find employment as a writer, including stints as a Hollywood gossip columnist and as fashion editor for Harper’s Bazaar.  In the early 1940s, while living on the east coast, she had a romantic relationship with future president John F. Kennedy.  

McCoy, his second wife Inga, and their two sons, Ronnie and Terry.  (WSA P2001-11/44)

McCoy, his second wife Inga Arvid, and their two sons, Ronnie and Terry.
(WSA P2001-11/44)

McCoy and Arvad married shortly after their meeting.  They would have two children.  After living for a brief time at Dolington Manor, the McCoys moved to California after Tim was recruited for a Los Angeles television program.  The program featured McCoy telling historical stories and Native Americans performing dances.  In 1952, he moved to a Los Angeles CBS affiliate where he won an Emmy award for his presentations about western American history.  The program lost sponsorship shortly after that, requiring McCoy to seek employment elsewhere.   He performed with a couple of circuses for several years.  

In 1962, the McCoys moved to Arizona.  Tim continued to be employed as a performer of cowboy-style acts.  Inga died in 1973 and McCoy retired a few months later.  He published an autobiography in 1977 and died the following year at the age of 87.

McCoy was recognized for his film career with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Additional honors included induction into the Hall of Great Western Performers of the National Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum and the Cowboy Hall of Fame. In 2010, McCoy was inducted into the Hall of Fame of Hot Springs County, Wyoming, where his ranch had been located.

McCoy was well known for his very large hats and helped to popularize the "10-gallon" Stetson. Max Meyer, owner of a hat shop in Cheyenne, special ordered McCoy's hats and worked with the Stetson company to produce ever larger specimens. This photo was sent to Meyer in thanks. The inscription reads: "Dear Max - Tom Mix called this a 50 gallon hat. When he saw it he almost fell out of his seat. - Tim McCoy"

McCoy was well-known for his very large hats and helped to popularize the “10-gallon” Stetson, characterized by their exaggerated large brims and crowns. Max Meyer, owner of a hat shop in Cheyenne, special ordered McCoy’s hats and worked with the Stetson company to produce ever larger specimens. This photo was sent to Meyer in thanks. The inscription reads: “Dear Max – Tom Mix called this a 50 gallon hat. When he saw it he almost fell out of his seat. – Tim McCoy” (WSA Sub Neg 19576)

The Tim McCoy collection at the Wyoming State Archives contains correspondence, posters, many of McCoy’s movies on videotape, clippings concerning McCoy’s career and western films, books about McCoy and western films, photographs, and some genealogical information.   

— Curtis Greubel, State Imaging Center Supervisor. Much of the information in this article was derived from Tim McCoy’s autobiography Tim McCoy Remembers the West.

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Meet Our New Deputy Gal!

A big welcome to our new Deputy State Archivist, Kathy Marquis! Most recently a librarian, but definitely an archivist at heart, we thought you might like to get to meet her. If you visit the Archives, be sure to say hi!

 

K Marquis

So, here I am in my second month as Deputy State Archivist.  It’s great to be a deputy in the wild west!  So far, I’m spending time getting to know staff, doing all the online trainings that come with new jobs (the winter driving module should prove to be useful right away, since I’m commuting from Laramie at the moment…) and reading up on all the accomplishments and challenges of my new workplace.

How did I come to be here?  My interest in archives goes back to my undergraduate days at the University of Michigan.  My women’s history professor brought us to the manuscript repository on campus (the Bentley Historical Library) and the reference archivist gave us an introduction.  And that was all it took to convince me that I wanted her job when I grew up.  I served as a “page” (a student who retrieved boxes from the restricted stack area) for two years in college and loved every minute.  I went on to Simmons College library school in Boston which had an archives program (not too many in those days!) but I was already employed at what seemed like my dream job:  manuscripts processor at the Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, at Radcliffe College.  I organized and described the papers of women and families.  Most were from the East Coast, but I was lucky enough to process a part of the papers of Jeannette Rankin, Montanan, suffragist, pacifist, and the first female member of the U.S. Congress.  I got to do some reference occasionally, but mainly it was my opportunity to start digging into some of the most fascinating collections in the country.  Lucky me!

After I finished my MLS, I became the reference archivist at the MIT Institute Archives and Special Collections.  Such a different set of modern records, but a great learning experience.  It was a very quick learning curve on the records of science and technology (not my background!) and it was wonderful to learn about these topics while providing access to some of the key players in twentieth century science and engineering.

From Cambridge, I went to the Minnesota Historical Society in St. Paul.  Despite the quaint sounding name, MHS employs over 300 staff, runs the state library, archives, manuscript repository, has a press, runs all the state historic sites, and has an education program which served (at the time) nearly 25,000 school kids a year.  It was a busy place!  I used to tell people that my reference interview sometimes consisted of yelling, “Next!”  I learned a ton about assisting patrons with genealogical searches, and also about working with government records.

In 1999 I went back to the Bentley Historical Library, but this time to finally “be” my early mentor, the head of the reference department.  I loved working with the grad students in Michigan’s School of Information, and with my colleagues there – some of whom had been there when I was a student, too.  

Then in 2002, my husband was offered the job of Director of the American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming, so we moved to Laramie.  I was very fortunate to find a job as Adult Services Librarian at the Albany County Public Library and so began my 13 year career as a public librarian.  I really enjoyed being able to assist the public in such important ways, from guiding them in how to use a mouse to organizing book discussion groups to selecting popular reading materials for the first time.  Public libraries are anything but quiet places these days.  Sometimes I miss seeing a toddler gazing into my office or hearing “Rock Band” throughout the library from our teen programs.  

Kathy Marquis

Kathy celebrates at the Society of American Archivists (SAA) meeting with colleague Jackie Dooley (and her caffine boost) and SAA president Denis Meissner.

When I left my job at ACPL I was open to staying in libraries, but was delighted when this job at the State Archives opened up.  I am happy to be back with archival collections, my first love.  Mike Strom, the State Archivist, has laid out a range of challenges at the Archives for me to begin to investigate and work on with him.  My first task is to learn our records management system and think about ways to make it easier for state agencies (including all the county libraries and university) to implement this system in their offices.  The Archives overhauled our records retention schedules several years ago; we now have less than one tenth the number of schedules for offices to use which simplifies life considerably.  But simpler is not better until everyone is familiar with the system and understands how it applies to them.  Arranging for long term preservation of Wyoming newspapers is another project we are working on, as is evaluation of the best way to preserve and make available our scanned images and documents.  And, we are working on upgrading the way we communicate online to state agencies and the general public, particularly via our website.  IMG_3610 deputy badge

I am excited to be here, to be learning about all the State Archives has to offer, and to be part of enhancing access to our collections and services.  I have so much to learn about our collections and how to answer questions from the public.  But the staff here has been really welcoming and they give me “pop quizzes” on how to find things, so I’m learning the ins and outs.  I look forward to meeting our researchers and helping them to discover all the amazing information here – both in person and virtually via all the records we are digitizing and making available over the Internet.

 

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Happy Birthday Governor Miller!

Governor Leslie A. Miller (WSA P2009-4/5)

Governor Leslie A. Miller
(WSA P2009-4/5)

Leslie Andrew Miller was born in Junction City, Kansas on January 29, 1886. His parents moved to Denver, Colorado, and then to Laramie, Wyoming, where he attended the public schools through the eighth grade. Additional education was obtained through business courses. Miller was exposed to politics when his father served two terms as Laramie’s mayor. He also distributed handbills promoting a Laramie visit by William Jennings Bryan, Democratic candidate for president, in 1898.

Miller’s first job was as a freight car checker at the Union Pacific yards in Laramie. He was promoted to brakeman in 1906. Three years later he married Margaret Morgan, an employee in his father’s Laramie store. They would have two children (Katherine and John). In 1911, Miller moved to Sheridan to take a job as brakeman for Burlington Northern Railroad. Prior to his move to Sheridan, Miller, a Democrat, ran one unsuccessful and one successful (1910) campaign for election to the Wyoming House of Representatives. His mother would succeed him as an Albany County representative. Anna B. Miller served in the 1913 legislature. Leslie Miller would serve in the state legislature in each of the next four decades (1911-1912, 1923-1924, 1929-1930, and 1945-1948) and was the first legislator to serve in both houses.

In 1918, Miller gave up his position as secretary and treasurer at Kinney Oil and Refining Co. to join the U.S. Navy and serve during World War I. Following the war, he was very active in the American Legion. (WSA H70-140, scrapbook 1)

In 1918, Miller gave up his position as secretary and treasurer at Kinney Oil and Refining Co. to join the U.S. Navy and serve during World War I. Following the war, he was very active in the American Legion.
(WSA H70-140, scrapbook 1)

The Sheridan job turned out to be part time work, so Miller traveled to Cheyenne to apply for re-employment with Union Pacific. Instead, a friend helped him get a job with the State Board of Immigration, beginning an off and on career of public service. The state job was short-lived and employment over the next ten years consisted of a wide range of experiences: Cheyenne Daily Leader, secretary to a Casper Oil Company, Marine Corps drill sergeant, and Wyoming’s first Internal Revenue Service collector. Miller also began a market firm called Aero Oil Company, which he sold in 1927. He started a similar business two years later under the name Chief Oil.

In 1922, Miller and other oilmen complained to Wyoming Senator John B. Kendrick that Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall had leased oil production rights at Teapot Dome in Natrona County without competitive bidding. Kendrick responded by submitting a Senate resolution calling for the Secretary to answer questions about the leases. The resolution was adopted, triggering a long investigation that resulted in prison sentences for Fall and oilman Harry Sinclair.

Miller ran unsuccessfully for governor in 1930 but was elected governor in 1932 to finish the last two years of the late Governor Emerson‘s term. The world was feeling some of the worst effects of the Great Depression when Miller began his stint as Wyoming’s chief executive. Upon taking office he proposed a number of cutbacks to state expenditures. Additionally, he said he would take a salary cut and would not live in the Governor’s Mansion. Although Wyoming strived to maintain an attitude of self-reliance, the growing needs of its citizens eventually forced the state to appropriate funds for relief and to participate in federal aid programs. At the end of 1933, Governor Miller reported the state had accepted over $95,000 in federal relief grants. A $75,000 appropriation was approved by the state legislature to supplement heavily impacted county funds.

1934 Democratic Party campaign poster. The 1934 election was a success for the Democratic Party. For the first time in Wyoming history, all five state-wide elected offices were won by the party. (WSA)

1934 Democratic Party campaign poster. The 1934 election was a success for the Democratic Party. For the first time in Wyoming history, all five state-wide elected offices were won by the party.
(WSA)

Miller was re-elected in 1934, a noteworthy election for the fact it was the only time in the state’s history the Democratic Party won all five elected offices. During his 1935 message to the legislature, Governor Miller stressed that other sources of revenue for the state needed to be found, as property tax revenue would fall short of meeting the need. The lawmakers responded by approving a 2 per cent sales tax on retail purchases. They also provided for the wholesaling of liquor by the state through a newly established Wyoming Liquor Commission. These measures gave a much needed boost to state revenues.

Miller kept several very large scrapbooks which are now housed in the Wyoming State Archives. These albums include newspaper clipping about Miller and his interests, photograph, letters from politicians (including Presidents F. Roosevelt and Hoover), event programs and other mementos. This page shows several photos from President and Mrs. Franklin Roosevelt's visit to Cheyenne in October 1936. The dahlias presented to Mrs. Roosevelt were probably grown by Miller himself. (WSA H70-140, Album 2)

Miller kept several very large scrapbooks which are now housed in the Wyoming State Archives. These albums include newspaper clipping about Miller and his interests, photograph, letters from politicians (including Presidents F. Roosevelt and Hoover), event programs and other mementos. This page shows several photos from President and Mrs. Franklin Roosevelt’s visit to Cheyenne in October 1936. The dahlias presented to Mrs. Roosevelt were probably grown by Miller himself.
(WSA H70-140, Album 2)

Wyoming government continued its frugal ways in 1937. Despite hopeful economic signs, Miller cut the budget approved by the legislature by over $300,000. His recommendations for a sales tax increase and a constitutional amendment allowing for the establishment of a graduated income tax were not heeded.
In 1938, Miller campaigned for election to a third term as governor, a feat that would have been unprecedented to that time. However, internal issues with the Democratic Party, disagreements among the elected officials, public displeasure with the sales tax, and failure to reduce gasoline prices contributed to his defeat. Republican Nels Smith, a Weston County rancher with relatively little political experience, won the election.

During the 1940s, Miller served on the Democratic National Committee, the War Production Board, and as chairman of the Hoover Commission’s Task Force on Natural Resources. His work on the Task Force was lauded by former President Hoover. It included an indictment of the wastefulness of Army Corps of Engineers and Bureau of Reclamation projects. He later served as director for Resources of the Future, an organization which researched natural resource issues.

Governor Miller was an avid gardener and daliahs were some of his favorites. Here he is with an 11 inch diameter specimen he planted outside the Capitol Building. August 21, 1938. (WSA P87-22/83)

Governor Miller was an avid gardener and dahlias were some of his favorites to grow. Here he is with a spectacular 11-inch diameter specimen he planted outside the Capitol Building. August 21, 1938.
(WSA P87-22/83)

Governor Miller died on September 29, 1970 in Cheyenne, Wyoming. He was remembered as an able, yet humble, statesman who effectively governed the state through the Great Depression and whose advice and services were sought by many leaders and interest groups long after his years as Wyoming’s governor.
The records of Governor Miller‘s terms in office available at the Wyoming State Archives include: Information on water and soil conservation; National Emergency Council for Wyoming report, 1935; a state budget for 1933-1935; an expense register; proclamations; requisitions and extraditions; military training schedules for 1936; and a memorandum to state legislators concerning appropriations. Governor Miller’s memoirs are also available.

— Curtis Greubel, Wyoming State Imaging Center Supervisor

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On This Day in Wyoming History… Butch Cassidy is Pardoned, 1896

On January 19, 1896, Governor William A Richards pardoned a convicted horse rustler named George Cassidy.

Cassidy's pardon (WSA Secretary of State, Pardons Book 1 Page 86)

Cassidy’s pardon
(WSA Secretary of State, Pardons Book 1 Page 86)

Governor Richards may have been influenced in no small part by a lengthy letter by District Court Judge Jesse Knight. In the letter, Knight lays out the details of Cassidy’s trial in 1892, as well as his reasoning behind the rather light sentence of two years. He asks Richards to consider pardoning Cassidy in good faith so that he may have the chance to become an upstanding citizen and possibly encourage his associates to do the same.

Hon. Knight's letter to Governor Richards, p1 (WSA RG0001.14, Petitions for Pardon, George Cassidy)

Hon. Knight’s letter to Governor Richards, p1
(WSA RG0001.14, Petitions for Pardon, George Cassidy)

Cassiday [sic] is a man that would be hard to describe — a brave, daring fellow and a man well calculated to be a leader, and should his inclinations run that way, I do not doubt but that he would be capable of organizing and leading a lot of desperate men to desperate deeds.

Hon. Knight's letter to Governor Richards, p2 (WSA RG0001.14, Petitions for Pardon, George Cassidy)

Hon. Knight’s letter to Governor Richards, p2
(WSA RG0001.14, Petitions for Pardon, George Cassidy)

 

Hon. Knight's letter to Governor Richards, p3 (WSA RG0001.14, Petitions for Pardon, George Cassidy)

Hon. Knight’s letter to Governor Richards, p3
(WSA RG0001.14, Petitions for Pardon, George Cassidy)

 

Hon. Knight's letter to Governor Richards, p4 (WSA RG0001.14, Petitions for Pardon, George Cassidy)

Hon. Knight’s letter to Governor Richards, p4
(WSA RG0001.14, Petitions for Pardon, George Cassidy)

Cassidy learned, before the verdict was made public or returned by the jury, that he had been found guilty, and he was offered horses and a means by which he could have made his escape, but at that time he said he believed Judge Knight was an honest man and would not be governed by the wishes of those whom he believed were persecuting him instead of prosecuting him, and that he should stay and take his sentence… [Cassidy] wrote me a note saying that he had no cause to complain, that he had received justice and thanked me for having given him a fair trail.

Hon. Knight's letter to Governor Richards, p5 (WSA RG0001.14, Petitions for Pardon, George Cassidy)

Hon. Knight’s letter to Governor Richards, p5
(WSA RG0001.14, Petitions for Pardon, George Cassidy)

At the time of sentencing Cassiday [sic], I talked to him a long time. While he had made the statement at the time I was about to pass sentence upon him that he was innocent and had been convicted on perjured evidence and bought testimony, I told him that I believed that he was not only guilty of the larceny of the horse for which he had been tried, but I believed that he was guilty of the larceny of the horse upon the charge of which he was acquitted the term before. I told him that I believed he was a man calculated to be a leader and that… if he was sentenced to a reasonable term of imprisonment, such as his better judgement would surely say he deserved, he was more likely to return to Fremont County and say to his former associates that… it was better to be honest than dishonest.

Hon. Knight's letter to Governor Richards, p6 (WSA RG0001.14, Petitions for Pardon, George Cassidy)

Hon. Knight’s letter to Governor Richards, p6
(WSA RG0001.14, Petitions for Pardon, George Cassidy)

If on the other hand, you should agree with Sheriff Ward and myself that possibly good might be accomplished by his earlier release, I would be glad to assume a part of the responsibility.

Hon. Knight's letter to Governor Richards, p7 (WSA RG0001.14, Petitions for Pardon, George Cassidy)

Hon. Knight’s letter to Governor Richards, p7
(WSA RG0001.14, Petitions for Pardon, George Cassidy)

 

Petition to Governor Richards for a pardon of George Cassidy. (WSA RG0001.14, Petitions for Pardon, George Cassidy)

Petition to Governor Richards for a pardon of George Cassidy.
(WSA RG0001.14, Petitions for Pardon, George Cassidy)

Despite Governor Richards and Hon. Knight’s good intentions, Cassidy returned to his life of crime and went on to become one of the most infamous criminals in the American West.

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